The Hybodus is an extinct genus of cartilaginous fish that closely resemble sharks. They were large predatory fish, sometimes over 2.5 meters long, that fed on fish and cephalopods. The head was immensely large and the body massive. There was a strong spine in front of each of the two dorsal fins, and the males also had hook-shaped head spines behind their eyes. The teeth had a broad base, with one main and several secondary tips, and the tip of the mouth contained smaller prehensile teeth.

Fossil deposits can be found in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and North America. The first fossil teeth of the Hybodus were found in England in 1845.


Bobasatrania is an extinct genus of bony fish that survived extinction in the Permian and Triassic periods. Bobasatrania fossils have been found in strata from the Late Permian to the Middle Triassic.
The genus lived in the shallow coastal waters off the Pangaean supercontinent. Their fossils can be found all over the world, with the exception of China.

They had a diamond-shaped body and varied in size depending on the species. B. ceresiensis was about 25 cm long, while other species, such as B. canadensis, could reach a length of about 1.2 m or more. They probably fed on small crustaceans.


Birgeria is a genus of carnivorous marine ray-finned fish from the Triassic.

Most of the fish is scale-free.
Together with the Saurichthys, the Birgeria was an apex predator among the ray-finned fishes of the Triassic and is described as a fast swimmer today.

There are only a few fossils to be found, which supports the assumption that the Birgeria had its habitat off the coast.

Most Birgeria species grew to over one meter in length, but there have also been finds of species up to two meters or more. The largest species include the Early Triassic Birgeria aldingeri from Svalbard and the Birgeria americana from Nevada. They were the first carnivores with a large body after the mass extinction in the Permian and Triassic.

Fossils have been found in Madagascar, Svalbard, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Slovenia, China, Russia, Canada and Nevada, USA. The oldest fossils come from Griesbach beds in the Wordie Creek Formation of East Greenland.